If you have been advised to undergo any kind of surgery, you will in most cases be told not to eat for at least 8-12 hours prior to the procedure. Depending on the type of surgery, you may be allowed to consume a small amount of water. While fasting may seem like an unnecessary bother to you, it’s extremely important and can affect the outcome of the surgery. The consumption of food prior to surgery can increase the risk of various complications, which is why patients are instructed against the consumption of any food or fluid prior to surgery. Some of the reasons for this requirement are as follows:
Decrease the possibility of getting infections
Abrupt intake of food increases the risk of getting stomach and intestinal infection in those patients who undergo gastrointestinal surgery. This may occur because the food contents in the stomach and intestine interfere with the ongoing surgical procedure and thus complicates it, resulting in gut infection.
Reduces the risk during anesthesia
When physicians inject anesthesia, the person’s bodily reflexes temporarily stop and the body attains a ‘sleep mode’. In that condition, swallowing becomes unfeasible. Moreover, the body also loses its gasopharyngeal reflex (protective reflex to stop the backflow of food from the stomach to the throat) under the influence of anesthesia. In that state, the risk of backflow of food substances (from the stomach to the esophagus) becomes considerably high. Additionally, while inhaling, the food content that is regurgitated may also spill into your lungs (due to the loss of protective gag reflex) via the air passage. These food substances may effectively block the flow of air to the lungs leading to complications like pulmonary aspiration. This situation may even put some patients at a risk of pneumonia. An empty stomach significantly decreases the risk of pulmonary aspiration and thus pneumonia.
Reduces the risk of acidity
In some patients who suffer from problems like GERD (Gastroesophageal reflux disorder) or gastric paresis (paralysis of the stomach; mostly occurs in diabetic patients), the rule of keeping an overnight fast should strictly be followed prior to the surgery. A heavy meal before surgery may cause acidity in these patients which leads to vomiting as well. Such patients are usually advised to follow a fast for a longer period for their own safety.
Although in recent years the fasting guidelines have been modified, most of patients are still advised to follow an overnight fasting procedure. However, it is always reasonable to talk to your doctor about your fasting requirements. In some cases, doctors may even advise patients to maintain a fast for more than 12 hours. The duration depends on the health status of the patient and the type of surgery.
Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) is a surgical procedure that involves the placement of an adjustable belt around the upper portion of the stomach using a laparascope. The band is made of silicone and can be tightened by adding saline to fill the band (like blowing air into a doughnut-shaped balloon). The band is connected to a port that is placed under the skin of the abdomen. This port is used to introduce or remove saline into the band.
LAGB ultimately restricts the size of the stomach and the amount of food it can hold. It also slows the passage of food to the intestine. By doing so, signals to the brain from the gut allow for a sensation of fullness and satiety with the consumption of less food. This signal is sent from a small pouch created by the band in the upper stomach. When the pouch fills, the same signal is sent to the brain that occurred previously when the entire stomach filled.
Recovery varies with each individual. However, in general, LAGB offers a shorter hospitalization and quicker recovery . In general, most people can return to work 1 week after surgery (if their job is not too physically demanding). Normal activity can usually resume after 6 weeks.
A research team led by the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine examined 3,882 records of patients who had undergone weight-loss surgery and a similar group of people who had not undergone the procedure and followed them for up to around 4 years.
They found that weight loss surgery patients underwent rapid weight loss for the first 4 months after surgery at a rate of almost 5 kilos a month. Weight continued to fall off, albeit at a slower rate, up to the end of year 4.
The researchers found that gastric bypass and sleeve gastrectomy were more successful procedures for achieving weight loss than other types of procedure. The estimated average 4 year weight loss was 83.8 lb (38 kg) for gastric bypass, 68.3 lb (31 kg) for sleeve gastrectomy and 44 lb (20 kg) for gastric banding.
Researchers evaluated data from five pertinent studies involving 442 children with uncomplicated appendicitis, 189 treated conservatively with antibiotics and 253 who underwent appendectomies. Their data were published online, August 17, in Archives of Disease in Childhood.
Treatment efficacy – defined as resolution of acute appendicitis without complications – was significantlygreater among surgically treated than conservatively treated patients (98% vs.74%; relative risk, 0.77). Surgery outperformed conservative treatment in all five studies.
Conservatively treated patients were also about 7 times more likely to be rehospitalized, and their outcomes were especially poor relative to surgery if they had fecoliths.Conservatively treated patients without fecoliths had a trend toward fewer complications, a trend toward increased efficacy, and a lower readmission rate, compared to conservatively treated patients with fecoliths. Nonetheless, the conservative approach in patients without a fecolith remained inferior to surgery, in terms of both treatment efficacy and readmission risk.
Metabolic Syndrome is the condition of central (abdomen and chest) obesity with associated diseases like abnormal blood glucose (Diabetes or Pre-diabetes), Dyslipidemia (abnormal blood cholesterol) and Hypertension(high blood pressure). Metabolic Surgery deals with surgery for the management of Metabolic Syndrome.An extraordinary thing happens to some patients with type 2 diabetes who undergo weight-loss surgery: Within days of the procedure, they improve their insulin production and need fewer or no diabetes medications. Although it’s well established that losing weight, especially around the waistline, improves pancreas function and insulin sensitivity, it generally takes 6 months to a year after bariatric surgery before a patient sheds a substantial number of pounds.
Before surgery, talk to your doctor about maintaining a good blood sugar level during the operation. You may do better with surgery and get better faster if your blood sugar is controlled during surgery. You may be instructed to aim for a blood sugar between 80 and 150 mg/dL.During surgery, insulin is given by the anesthesiologist. You will meet with this doctor before surgery to discuss the plan to control your blood sugar during the operation.
Some general signs and symptoms of cancer?
Unexplained weight loss
Most people with cancer will lose weight at some point. When you lose weight for no known reason, it’s called an unexplained weight loss. An unexplained weight loss of 10 pounds or more may be the first sign of cancer. This happens most often with cancers of the pancreas, stomach, esophagus (swallowing tube), or lung.
Fever is very common with cancer, but it more often happens after cancer has spread from where it started. Almost all people with cancer will have fever at some time, especially if the cancer or its treatment affects the immune system. (This can make it harder for the body to fight infection.) Less often, fever may be an early sign of cancer, such as blood cancers like leukemia or lymphoma.
Fatigue is extreme tiredness that doesn’t get better with rest. It may be an important symptom as cancer grows. But it may happen early in some cancers, like leukemia. Some colon or stomach cancers can cause blood loss that’s not obvious. This is another way cancer can cause fatigue.
Pain may be an early symptom with some cancers like bone cancers or testicular cancer. A headache that does not go away or get better with treatment may be a symptom of a brain tumor. Back pain can be a symptom of cancer of the colon, rectum, or ovary. Most often, pain due to cancer means it has already spread (metastasized) from where it started.
Along with skin cancers, some other cancers can cause skin changes that can be seen. These signs and symptoms include:
Darker looking skin (hyperpigmentation)
Yellowish skin and eyes (jaundice)
Reddened skin (erythema)
Excessive hair growth
Signs and symptoms of certain cancers
Change in bowel habits or bladder function
Long-term constipation, diarrhea, or a change in the size of the stool may be a sign of colon cancer. Pain when passing urine, blood in the urine, or a change in bladder function (such as needing to pass urine more or less often than usual) could be related to bladder or prostate cancer. Report any changes in bladder or bowel function to a doctor.
Sores that do not heal
Skin cancers may bleed and look like sores that don’t heal. A long-lasting sore in the mouth could be an oral cancer. This should be dealt with right away, especially in people who smoke, chew tobacco, or often drink alcohol. Sores on the penis or vagina may either be signs of infection or an early cancer, and should be seen by a health professional.
White patches inside the mouth or white spots on the tongue
White patches inside the mouth and white spots on the tongue may be leukoplakia. Leukoplakia is a pre-cancerous area that’s caused by frequent irritation. It’s often caused by smoking or other tobacco use. People who smoke pipes or use oral or spit tobacco are at high risk for leukoplakia. If it’s not treated, leukoplakia can become mouth cancer. Any long-lasting mouth changes should be checked by a doctor or dentist right away.
Unusual bleeding or discharge
Unusual bleeding can happen in early or advanced cancer. Coughing up blood may be a sign of lung cancer. Blood in the stool (which can look like very dark or black stool) could be a sign of colon or rectal cancer. Cancer of the cervix or the endometrium (lining of the uterus) can cause abnormal vaginal bleeding. Blood in the urine may be a sign of bladder or kidney cancer. A bloody discharge from the nipple may be a sign of breast cancer.
Thickening or lump in the breast or other parts of the body
Many cancers can be felt through the skin. These cancers occur mostly in the breast, testicle, lymph nodes (glands), and the soft tissues of the body. A lump or thickening may be an early or late sign of cancer and should be reported to a doctor, especially if you’ve just found it or notice it has grown in size. Keep in mind that some breast cancers show up as red or thickened skin rather than a lump.
Indigestion or trouble swallowing
Indigestion or swallowing problems that don’t go away may be signs of cancer of the esophagus (the swallowing tube that goes to the stomach), stomach, or pharynx (throat). But like most symptoms on this list, they are most often caused by something other than cancer.
Recent change in a wart or mole or any new skin change
Any wart, mole, or freckle that changes color, size, or shape, or that loses its sharp border should be seen by a doctor right away. Any other skin changes should be reported, too. A skin change may be a melanoma which, if found early, can be treated successfully. See pictures of skin cancers and other skin conditions in our Skin Cancer Image Gallery.
Nagging cough or hoarseness
A cough that does not go away may be a sign of lung cancer. Hoarseness can be a sign of cancer of the larynx ( voice box) or thyroid gland.
The signs and symptoms listed above are the more common ones seen with cancer, but there are many others that are not listed here. If you notice any major changes in the way your body works or the way you feel – especially if it lasts for a long time or gets worse – let a doctor know. If it has nothing to do with cancer, the doctor can find out more about what’s going on and, if needed, treat it. If it is cancer, you’ll give yourself the chance to have it treated early, when treatment works best.
Metabolic Syndrome is the condition of central (abdomen and chest) obesity with associated diseases like abnormal blood glucose (Diabetes or Pre-diabetes), Dyslipidemia (abnormal blood cholesterol) and Hypertension (high blood pressure). Metabolic Surgery deals with surgery for the management of Metabolic Syndrome. Metabolic syndrome is the combination of several medical problems associated with morbid obesity: high blood pressure, glucose intolerance/insulin resistance, excess body fat and high cholesterol. Identifying metabolic syndrome is important because the syndrome increases the risk for cardiovascular disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes, kidney disease, and other problems.The important surgical method for treating metabolic syndrome are
- GASTRIC BYPASS
- SLEEVE GASTRECTOMY
Gastric bypass surgery is one of several weight-loss surgeries currently performed.The procedure in use today is called the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.Diet recommendations after gastric bypass surgery vary depending on where the surgery is performed and your individual situation.Protein may be the most important of these foods early after surgery.Your body needs protein to build muscles and other body tissues, and to heal well after surgery.
Low-fat protein choices include:
- Skinless chicken
- Lean beef or pork
- Whole eggs or egg whites
- Dairy products
After gastric bypass surgery, your body will not absorb some important vitamins and minerals.You will need to take these vitamins and minerals for the rest of your life:Multivitamin with iron,Vitamin B12,Calcium
- Chest pain
- Chronic and recurrent abdominal pain
- Nausea and vomiting
There are so many treatment options,these will depend on the type of gastrointestinal diseases.Though many digestive problems can be treated successfully with lifestyle changes or medications, some conditions may require laparoscopic surgery.Laparoscopic surgery and hand-assisted laparoscopic surgery (HALS) are “minimally invasive” procedures commonly used to treat diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. Unlike traditional surgery on the colon or other parts of the intestines where a long incision down the center of the abdomen is required, laparoscopic surgery requires only small “keyhole” incisions in the abdomen.In the case of hand-assisted surgery, a 3-4 inch incision is also used to allow the surgeon’s hand access to the abdominal organs. As a result, the person undergoing the procedure may experience less pain and scarring after surgery, and a more rapid recovery.
- Difficulty swallowing
- Persistent acid indigestion or heartburn
- Weight loss
- Pain in your throat or behind your breastbone
- Chronic cough
- Coughing up blood
This is the most common treatment for early cancer of the oesophagus. Doctors remove all or part of your oesophagus.
Chemotherapy uses anti cancer (cytotoxic) drugs to destroy cancer cells.
Radiotherapy uses high energy waves similar to x-rays to kill oesophageal cancer cells.
Find out about having chemotherapy and radiotherapy together for oesophageal cancer and how you have it.